Prostatitis is a disease formed due to infections or inflammation causing factors in the prostate gland. Prostatitis causing pain, burning, difficult urination, incomplete emptying (feeling of left urine drops), frequent urination, night urination, back pain, fatigue and other complaints, significantly worsens men’s quality of life and occurs in 4 men out of 10…
Prostatitis is a general term used in inflammations of the prostate gland. The inflammations are related to the infection or other factors. Prostate is a gland only found in men and located in front of the rectum and below the bladder. In adults, it weighs 20-25 grams. It is divided into two portions with lateral outgrowth; anterior portion is connected with the bladder and prostatic urethra (posterior) passes through it (ensuring urine expel), and semen extraction canal (vas deferens) passes through the posterior portion.
Functions of the prostate – prostate is a gland. At the same time, it is a secondary sex organ. The most function is to nourish and increase the sperm volume making up to 30-35% of the sperm content. This eases sperm transportation by increasing its volume, and fertilization. Prostate secretion pH is 6.5 and it is a milk color fluid with specific odor. Prostate is inactive until adolescence and its activity starts and grows this period until reaching 25, and gradually starts to decrease after it.
Inflammatory diseases of the prostate
In prostate inflammation, microbes come directly or by blood. Evaluation and treatment of the prostatitis patients is not much hard, but the most important is correct diagnosis and classification. Most of the patients apply after unsuccessful treatment and pelvic pain. They complain about the increasing-decreasing pain, urination disorder, painful and difficult sexual contacts etc. In general, prostatitis usually disturbs young men. It is the most common urology diagnosis in the men below 50 and third most common in the men over 50. 25% of the men say that they had prostatitis symptoms in their lives.
What are the causes of prostatitis?
- Bacteria (mycoplasma, chlamydia, trichomonas, gonorrhea, viruses, E.Coli, klebsiella, enterobacteria pseudomonas, etc)
- Anatomic: There are two major anatomic abnormalities causing prostatitis: 1-obsrtuction, 2-reflux. Enlargement of the bladder, prostate hyperplasia (benign growth) etc. are also causing factors.
- Traumatic: Any past traumas (in pelvic and perineum areas) cause prostatitis formation and development
- Immuno-neurological etc.
- Putting catheters due to different reasons (for urination) in men
- Anal sex
- Constipation etc
What are the general symptoms of prostatitis?
Numerous studies show that the first symptom is pain. The pain occurs in the pelvic, perineum, testicles, penis and ejaculation after a sexual contact, urination etc. and in acute cases fever, drop in the urine pressure (speed), sperm ejaculation are observed. It also causes sexual disorders (erectile dysfunction, premature ejaculation etc.)
What are the types of prostatitis?
Prostate inflammation (prostatitis) has 4 types:
- Acute bacterial prostatitis
- Chronic bacterial prostatitis
- Non-bacterial prostatitis (chronic pelvic pain syndrome): a) there is no microbe in the prostate secretion, but inflammatory cells; b) there is no microbe and inflammatory cells in the prostate secretion, only chronic pain is absent
- Asymptomatic prostatitis (having prostatitis without any complaints)
Acute bacterial prostatitis
Least common, but more severe form of the disease. Mainly occurs in the men below 50. Caused by bacteria (microbes)
- High fever, weakness
- Flu like condition
- Pain and burning in urination
- Dropped pressure and difficulty in urination
- Incomplete emptying during urination, residual urine drops or terminal dribbling
- Frequent urination, sometimes bloody urine, painful sexual contact
Diagnosis: Increased leukocytes in the urine, hematuria (blood in the urine), bacteriuria (microbes in the urine), prostate secretion examination, rectal examination (checking for prostate swelling), US examination and patient’s complaints
If untreated, acute prostatitis may cause prostate abscess. Prostate abscess is the complication of acute bacterial prostatitis. Mainly occurs in diabetes mellitus. Clarified with rectal, US and CT examinations.
Chronic bacterial prostatitis
Here cause is the same – bacteria (microbes). Symptoms are close to acute bacterial prostatitis, but they are calmer. Sometimes calcines (stones) in the prostate play role in the onset of the disease by absorbing bacteria. Chronic prostatitis is found in most men, it does not disturb much as symptoms are less severe, and found during examinations. Long-term chronic prostatitis cause weakness of the sexual functions.
Non-bacterial prostatitis (chronic pelvic pain syndrome)
It is the most common type of the prostate diseases. This disease has long-term negative effect on the quality of life by weakening the sexual functions. As causes are unknown, it is a hard type prostatitis to diagnose and treat. Here the most important target is not fully cure the disease, but alleviate its symptoms.
Asymptomatic prostatitis (having prostatitis without any complaints)
There is no complaint in this form of the disease, but prostatitis is found only in lab and clinic examinations. Less urination disorders and pain are observed. Patients are usually between 20-45. There are no infections (microbes) and leukocytes in the analysis of the prostate secretion. Psychologic problems are common in such patients. Antibiotics are inefficient in this disease.
Which type do you have? The most important two steps in the diagnosis of prostatitis are to exclude other cases causing similar complaints and identify the type of prostatitis. For this reason, it is important to know your previous treatments, history of diseases, infections, sexual life and other complaints. Then physical and rectal examinations shall be conducted.
How prostatitis is treated
There are 4 core treatment principles based on the recent studies in curing prostatitis:
- Treatment of inflammation
- Easing urination
- Reducing the spasm
- Reducing the stress
Frequently asked questions by patients
Question: Is prostate examination painful?
Answer: No, it is a very simple and painless examination.
Question: Can prostatitis cause prostate cancer?
Answer: Even there is no precise information on this, after 40, prostatitis and prostate cancer may occur together. In a prostate cancer risk family, it is recommended to conduct PSA (prostate specific antigen) test for prostate cancer in case of prostatitis.
Question: Is it possible to have the same complaints after prostatitis treatment?
Answer: Yes, it is possible. Particularly in case of non-bacterial prostatitis, the disease may recur despite of the treatment and protection measure due to the climate changes, stress etc.
Question: What to pay attention in case of having prostatitis?
Answer: Pay attention to have a regular sexual life. Do not stop yourself from ejaculation during sexual intercourses; protect yourself from cold (especially feet). Hot tubes are useful particularly in cold weathers. Do not sit on cold places and concrete. Avoid alcoholic beverages, get treatment in case of constipation, avoid eating irritating (burning) meals (spices) and sedentary life-style.